USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of Stalevo in pregnant women. In animals, administration of carbidopa-levodopa or entacapone during pregnancy was associated with developmental toxicity, including increased incidences of fetal malformations (see

Pregnancy

Risk Summary

There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of Stalevo in pregnant women. In animals, administration of carbidopa-levodopa or entacapone during pregnancy was associated with developmental toxicity, including increased incidences of fetal malformations (see Data). The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risks of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies are 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

 

Data

Animal data

In nonclinical studies in which carbidopa-levodopa was administered to pregnant animals, increased incidences of visceral and skeletal malformations were observed in rabbits at all doses and ratios of carbidopa-levodopa tested, which ranged from 10 times (carbidopa)-5 times (levodopa) to 20 times (carbidopa)-10 times (levodopa) the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 1,600 mg/day. In rats, there was a decrease in the number of live pups delivered by dams receiving approximately two times (carbidopa)-five times (levodopa) the MRHD throughout organogenesis. No effects on malformation frequencies were observed in mice receiving up to 20 times the MRHD of carbidopa-levodopa.

 

In embryo-fetal development studies of entacapone, pregnant animals received doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg/day (rats) or 300 mg/kg/day (rabbits) throughout organogenesis. Increased incidences of fetal variations were evident in litters from rats treated with the highest dose, in the absence of overt signs of maternal toxicity. The maternal plasma entacapone exposure (AUC) associated with this dose was approximately 34 times that in humans at the MRHD. Increased frequencies of abortions and late/total resorptions and decreased fetal weights were observed in the litters of rabbits treated with maternally toxic doses of 100 mg/kg/day (plasma AUCs less than that in humans at the MRHD) or greater. There were no increases in malformation rates in these studies.

 

When entacapone was administered to female rats prior to mating and during early gestation, an increased incidence of fetal eye anomalies (macrophthalmia, microphthalmia, anophthalmia) was observed in the litters of dams treated with doses of 160 mg/kg/day (plasma AUCs seven times that in humans at the MRHD) or greater, in the absence of maternal toxicity. Administration of up to 700 mg/kg/day (plasma AUCs 28 times that in humans at the MRHD) to rats during the latter part of gestation and throughout lactation produced no evidence of developmental impairment in the offspring.


Tina Yuu

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